Analyzing the Pattern of L1 Sounds on L2 Sounds Produced by Javanese Students of STKIP PGRI Jombang

  • Daning Hentasmaka Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (STKIP) PGRI Jombang
Keywords: sound pattern, L1 sound, L2 sound, sound production


The study concerns on an analysis on the tendency of first language (L1) sound patterning on second language (L2) sounds done by Javanese students.  Focusing on the consonant sounds, the data were collected by recording students’ pronunciation of English words during the pronunciation test. The data then analyzed through three activities: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/ verification. The result showed that the patterning of L1 sounds happened on L2 sounds especially on eleven consonant sounds: the fricatives [v, θ, ð, ʃ, ʒ], the voiceless stops [p, t, k], and the voiced stops [b, d, g].Those patterning case emerged mostly due to the difference in the existence of consonant sounds and rules of consonant distribution. Besides, one of the cases was caused by the difference in consonant clusters between L1 and L2.


Bada,E.2001).NativeLanguageInfluenceontheProductionofEnglishSoundsby Japanese Learners.

Dulay, H., Burt, M., Krashen, S. 1982. Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ladefoged, P. & Johnson, K. 2011.A Course in Phonetics Sixth Edition. USA: Wadsworth.

Prananingrum, K. D. &Kwary, D. A. 2006.L1 Influence on the Production of L2 Sounds: A Case Study at the English Diploma Program, Airlangga University, Indonesia, (Online), (, accessed on 24 May 2011).

Sugiyono. 2008. MetodePenelitianPendidikan (PendekatanKuantitatif, Kualitatifdan R&D). Bandung: C.V. Alfabeta.

Sugiyono. 2011. MetodePenelitianKuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R&D. Bandung: C.V. Alfabeta.

Syaefi, A. (1988). English Pronunciation: Theory and Practice. Jakarta: DepartemenPendidikandanKebudayaan, DirektoratJendralPendidikanTinggi, ProyekPengembanganLembagaPendidikanTenagaKependidikan
Wedhawati, et. al. (2006).Tata BahasaJawaMutakhirEdisiRevisi. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Yule, G. (2010). The Study of Language Fourth Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
How to Cite
Hentasmaka, D. (2015). Analyzing the Pattern of L1 Sounds on L2 Sounds Produced by Javanese Students of STKIP PGRI Jombang. Indonesian EFL Journal: Journal of ELT, Linguistics, and Literature, 1(1), 20-30. Retrieved from