Publication Ethics

The ethical principles guiding journal publication, as outlined by Elsevier policies, underscore the significance of peer-reviewed MIQLAMAH articles in shaping a cohesive and reputable knowledge network. These articles serve as direct reflections of authors' work quality and institutional support, embodying the scientific method. Therefore, establishing agreed-upon ethical standards is crucial for all stakeholders involved in publishing: authors, journal editors, peer reviewers, publishers, and societies.

As the publisher of MIQLAMAH, FPS PBA Kopertais IV acknowledges its responsibility to oversee all publishing stages diligently and uphold ethical standards. We are committed to ensuring that editorial decisions remain unaffected by advertising, reprints, or other commercial considerations.


(Based on Elsevier policies and COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors)

Reporting standards

Authors of original research reports are expected to provide an accurate portrayal of their work and engage in an objective discussion of its significance. All underlying data should be accurately represented in the paper, with sufficient detail and references to enable replication. Any fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements are considered unethical and unacceptable. Similarly, review and professional publication articles must maintain accuracy and objectivity, with editorial opinion works clearly identified as such.

Data access and retention

Authors may be required to submit raw data for editorial review and should be willing to provide public access to such data, if feasible. Additionally, authors should retain such data for a reasonable duration after publication.

Originality and Plagiarism

Authors are responsible for ensuring that their works are entirely original, and if they have incorporated the work or words of others, proper citation or quotation must be provided. Plagiarism encompasses various forms, ranging from presenting another person's paper as one's own to reproducing significant portions of another's work (without attribution) or claiming research outcomes conducted by others. Plagiarism, in any form, constitutes unethical publishing conduct and is not acceptable.

Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publication

Authors should refrain from submitting manuscripts describing essentially the same research to multiple journals or primary publications. Simultaneously submitting the same manuscript to multiple journals is unethical and unacceptable. Generally, authors should not submit previously published papers for consideration by another journal. However, certain types of articles (e.g., guidelines, translations) may be justifiably published in multiple journals, provided specific conditions are met. The authors and editors of the relevant journals must consent to the secondary publication, which should mirror the data and interpretation of the primary document. The primary reference must be cited in the secondary publication.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Authors must appropriately acknowledge the work of others. They should cite publications that have influenced the reported work. Information obtained privately, such as through conversations, correspondence, or discussions with third parties, must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source. Information obtained during confidential services, such as manuscript refereeing or grant application review, must not be used without explicit, written permission from the author involved in these services.

Authorship of the Paper

Authorship should be limited to individuals who have made substantial contributions to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the study being reported. All contributors with significant input should be acknowledged as co-authors, meaning that manuscripts must have at least one author and one co-author. Individuals who have contributed to specific substantive aspects of the research project should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author holds the responsibility of ensuring that all appropriate co-authors are included in the paper, while inappropriate co-authors are excluded. Additionally, all co-authors must review and approve the final version of the paper and consent to its submission for publication. If the research involves chemicals, procedures, or equipment that pose unusual hazards, these must be clearly identified in the manuscript.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

Authors must disclose any financial or other significant conflicts of interest in their manuscript that could potentially influence the results or interpretation of their work. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors should disclose potential conflicts of interest at the earliest opportunity.

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

Authors are obligated to promptly inform the journal editor or publisher upon discovering a significant error or inaccuracy in their published work. They should cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper. If a third party informs the editor or publisher of a significant error in a published work, the author must promptly retract or correct the paper or provide evidence to support the original paper's accuracy.



(Based on Elsevier policies and COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors)

Publication Decisions

The editor of a peer-reviewed MIQLAMAH bears the responsibility of determining the articles worthy of publication among those submitted to the journal. The decision-making process should prioritize the validation and significance of the submitted work to researchers and readers. The editor's judgment may be influenced by the journal's editorial board policies and constrained by legal obligations concerning libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. In making publication decisions, the editor may seek input from other editors or reviewers.

Fair Play

Editors should assess manuscripts based on their intellectual content, devoid of considerations such as race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political affiliations of the authors.


The editor and editorial staff must uphold the confidentiality of submitted manuscripts, refraining from disclosing any information to individuals other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisors, and the publisher, as appropriate.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

Editors must not utilize unpublished materials disclosed in submitted manuscripts for their own research without explicit written consent from the author. Privileged information or ideas acquired through peer review should remain confidential and not be exploited for personal gain. Editors should recuse themselves from evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest arising from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions linked to the papers. Editors should mandate all contributors to disclose pertinent competing interests and rectify any disclosed competing interests post-publication. If necessary, appropriate measures should be taken, including retracting or expressing concerns about published papers.

Involvement and Cooperation in Investigations

Editors are expected to take appropriate actions upon receiving ethical complaints regarding a submitted manuscript or published paper, in collaboration with the publisher (or society). These actions typically involve contacting the author to address the complaint or claims made, considering them diligently. Further steps may include reaching out to relevant institutions and research bodies. If the complaint is substantiated, corrective measures such as issuing a correction, retraction, expression of concern, or other relevant notes may be necessary. It's essential to investigate every reported instance of unethical publishing behavior, even if it comes to light years after publication.



(Based on Elsevier policies and COPE's Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors)

Contribution to Editorial Decisions

Peer review assists editors in making editorial decisions and helps authors improve their papers through editorial communications. Peer review is integral to formal scholarly communication and is fundamental to the scientific method.


Reviewers should promptly notify the editor if they feel unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or if they cannot provide a timely review.


Reviewers must treat manuscripts received for review as confidential documents and should not disclose or discuss them with unauthorized individuals except as permitted by the editor.

Standards of Objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively, without personal criticism of the author. Reviewers should express their views clearly, supported by arguments.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors and alert the editor to any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under review and any other published paper they are aware of personally. Any previous reports of observations, derivations, or arguments should be accompanied by the relevant citation.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Reviewers must refrain from using unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript for their own research without explicit written consent from the author. They are obligated to maintain the confidentiality of privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review and should not exploit them for personal gain. Reviewers are prohibited from evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest stemming from competitive, collaborative, or other affiliations with any of the authors, companies, or institutions associated with the papers.